Take stock of the wars that occurred in the history of the Song Dynasty?

Recently, many people have been talking about some of the wars in the Song Dynasty, which are quite interesting. Many people want to know what wars occurred in the history of the Song Dynasty. This issue is relatively easy to understand. Let’s briefly talk about it together. Let’s talk. If you are interested, you can come and have a brief look.

1. The Unification War of the Northern Song Dynasty

The Unification War of the Northern Song Dynasty was a unification war against the remaining separatist regimes of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Wuping, Houshu, Southern Han, Southern Tang, and Northern Han after the establishment of the Song Dynasty.

From the third year of Jianlong in the Northern Song Dynasty to the fourth year of Taiping and Xingguo (962-979), the Song Dynasty adopted the policy of first easy and then difficult, first south and then north. This mainly included Murong Yanzhao and Li Chuyun leading the army to pacify Wuping and Zhou Baoquan (963). At the same time, Gao Jichong of Jingnan took the initiative Surrendered and submitted; Wang Quanbin led his army to pacify Mengchang of Later Shu (965); Song Taizu led his army to conquer the Northern Han Dynasty (968); Pan Mei led his army to pacify Liu Yuan of the Southern Han Dynasty (970 AD); Cao Bin and Pan Mei led their troops to pacify Li Yu of the Southern Tang Dynasty (975); later, Wu Yue Qian Chu and Qingyuan Army Jiedushi Chen Hongjin took the initiative to surrender and submit (978); Song Taizong led his army to pacify Liu Jiyuan of the Northern Han Dynasty (979).

The Northern Song Dynasty did not completely unify ancient China, but it basically unified ancient China. The second expedition against the Liao Kingdom failed, and the Sixteen Prefectures of Youyun, western Liaoning, and eastern Liaoning were still in the hands of the Khitan. Party item Li Jiqian and his descendants later controlled Xiazhou, Lingzhou, and the Hexi Corridor and established Xixia. The Jiaozhi State established in Jiaozhou only became a vassal state of the Song Dynasty, that is, the independence of Vietnam.

2. Yongxi’s Northern Expedition

The Yongxi Northern Expedition refers to the historical event that in the third year of Yongxi’s reign (986) in the Northern Song Dynasty, in order to recover the Sixteen Yanyun Prefectures ceded to the Liao Dynasty by Shi Jingtang, the “son emperor” of the Later Jin Dynasty, Song Taizong sent an army of 200,000 troops to attack the Liao Dynasty in three directions.

In the third year of Yongxi’s reign (986), Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty took advantage of the opportunity of the new ruler of the Liao Dynasty to send three armies to the north. Initially, the three-pronged army marched smoothly and recovered a lot of lost ground. However, as the Northwest Route Army’s Mi Xinbu Xincheng battle failed and the East Route Army Cao Bin was defeated by the famous Liao general Yelvxiu Ge at Qigou Pass (now southwest of Zhuozhou City, Hebei), Song Taizong urgently ordered the Song Army’s three armies to retreat and ordered Pan Mei , the Western Route Army under the command of Yang Ye escorted the people to move inward. Supervisor Wang Qian and coach Pan Mei made mistakes in command and retreated early, causing Yang Ye to fall into a tight siege. Yang Ye’s troops fought alone and were eventually wounded and captured. They went on a hunger strike for three days and died heroically.

Yongxi’s Northern Expedition was Song’s second strategic offensive against Liao during the Song-Liao War. The success or failure of this strategic offensive not only produced major changes in the military situation between Song and Liao, but also had a major impact on Song’s internal affairs. The defeat of this battle changed the Song’s strategic relationship with the Liao from offensive to defensive, which ultimately weakened the Song’s relationship with the Liao. Until the signing of the Chanyuan Alliance, Song and Liao generally maintained a peaceful situation.

3. Song-Xia War

The Song-Xia War was a series of wars that took place between Xixia and the Northern Song Dynasty during the Northern Song Dynasty. In the fifth year of Jingyou’s reign (1038) of Renzong in the Northern Song Dynasty, Li Yuanhao, the leader of the vassal Party Xiang regime of the Song Dynasty, broke away from the Song Dynasty and established himself as an emperor. In the second year of Baoyuan of Song Renzong (1039), Li Yuanhao, Jingzong of Western Xia Dynasty, wrote a letter to inform the Song court, hoping that they would admit this fact. However, most officials in the Song Dynasty advocated immediately sending troops to attack Xixia and raising troops to investigate the crimes. So Song Renzong issued an edict in June of that year to remove Li Yuanhao from his official title and offered a reward for his capture. From then on, the first Song-Xia war broke out, which lasted for three years. Until the fourth year of Qingli reign of Emperor Renzong of the Song Dynasty (1044), the Northern Song Dynasty and Xixia reached a peace agreement, which was known as the “Qingli Peace Agreement” in history. However, later during the reigns of Song Shenzong and Song Zhezong, war broke out between Song and Xia again.

The Song-Xia war was intermittent. According to the order of the reigning emperors of the Song Dynasty, the war with Xixia during the Renzong period was classified as the first Song-Xia war, the Yingzong period was the second Song-Xia war, the Shenzong period was the third Song-Xia war, and the Zhezong period was The period was the Fourth Song-Xia War, and the Song Huizong period was the Fifth Song-Xia War.

4. Song Jiang Uprising

The Songjiang Uprising was a peasant uprising in the late Northern Song Dynasty. His deeds were continuously interpreted by later generations and became the historical prototype material of “Water Margin”.

In the first year of Xuanhe, Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty (1119), Song Jiang gathered 36 people to revolt in Liangshanbo (Liangshanlu). He led the crowd to attack Heshuo and Jingdong East Road (today’s Qingzhou, Shandong), and then moved to Qingzhou, Qizhou (today’s Jinan, Shandong) to Pu Between the prefectures (today’s north of Juancheng, Shandong), more than ten prefectures and counties were captured. In December, Huizong accepted the suggestion of Marquis Zeng, the magistrate of Bozhou, to recruit Song Jiang to safety, but failed, so he ordered Zeng Xiaoyun, the magistrate of Shezhou, to lead an army to conquer. Song Jiang went south from Qingzhou to Yizhou (now Linyi, Shandong).

In February of the third year of Xuanhe (1121), he captured the Huaiyang Army (now Suining, Jiangsu) and took a boat from Shuyang to Haizhou (now Lianyungang, Jiangsu). In May, after Song Jiang led his troops ashore, they were ambushed by Zhang Shuye, the magistrate of Haizhou. The ship was burned. Song Jiang was defeated and captured, and the uprising failed.

Some unofficial histories after the Southern Song Dynasty often record Song Jiang’s participation in the conquest of Fangla. However, “Eastern Capital History·Huizong Ji” lists Ping Songjiang after Square La, and “Zhe Kecun’s Epitaph” also says that Zhe Ke exists after Square La and participated in the battle to level Songjiang.

5. Fangla Uprising

The Fangla Uprising broke out in the late Northern Song Dynasty.

Fang La, a native of Qingxi, Muzhou, was originally the owner of the lacquer garden. According to legend, he had a bold and outgoing personality, won the hearts of the people, and was able to appeal to many farmers who were living in poverty. During the reign of Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty, he went to Wannian Township in Qingxi County, Muzhou (today’s northwest of Chun’an, Zhejiang Province) to help Yuandong Baozhengfang with the Chang family as a servant (some say Fang La was the owner of the lacquer garden). At that time, Huizong, Cai Jing, and Tong Guan of the Song Dynasty exploited the people greedily and imposed heavy taxes and servitude. “People were desperate, so they all left and became thieves.”

On the ninth day of the tenth month of the second year of Xuanhe (October 1120), Fang La led a crowd to revolt in Qixian Village, She County. He used the call to attack Zhu Meng and killed all the officials and their minions. In the third year of Xuanhe, Fang La was captured under the siege of the Song army, and the rest of the army was still fighting. The people were suffering from plunder and extortion by officials, and as expected, they responded everywhere. Within ten days, tens of thousands of people gathered together, and their followers were like clouds. They attacked the city and seized the pond. They called themselves Shenggong and established “Yongle”. Soon, dozens of prefectures and counties were captured one after another, and the number of tribesmen grew to nearly one million, making them powerful in the southeast.

6. Xuanhe Northern Rebellion

The Xuanhe Northern Rebellion refers to a series of civil uprisings in Kaifeng, Shandong, Hebei and other places in the Northern Song Dynasty that occurred in 1124 (the sixth year of Xuanhe’s reign in the Northern Song Dynasty) due to the abuse of civilian power, excessive prison quotas and natural disasters caused by the Xuanhe Northern Expedition. .

7. The Jin and Song Dynasties combined to destroy the Liao Kingdom

After the Maritime Alliance was signed, the Jin and Song Dynasties worked together to destroy the Liao Kingdom. However, after the demise of the Liao Kingdom, the Song Dynasty lost the Liao Kingdom in disguise as its barrier to prevent the Jin soldiers from going south. After that, the borders between Jin and Song Dynasty officially connected, but the two sides still had conflicts over issues such as the ownership of the Sixteenth Prefecture of Yanyun. In the end, Jin soldiers invaded the Song Dynasty from the south after the fall of Liao Dynasty. In 1126, the Northern Song Dynasty suffered from political corruption and weak national and military strength. The powerful Jin soldiers captured its capital Bianjing and the territory in the Central Plains, leading to the Jingkang Incident and the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty in 167 years after the founding of the country.

8. The shame of Jingkang

The Shame of Jingkang is also known as the Chaos of Jingkang, the Disaster of Jingkang, the Disaster of Jingkang, and the Shame of Jingkang. It is a famous event in Chinese history that took place during the Jingkang period of Qinzong in the Northern Song Dynasty (1126~1127), hence its name. Because the first year of Jingkang was the year of Bingwu, this incident was also called the shame of Bingwu.

In April of the second year of Jingkang, the Jin army captured Tokyo (now Kaifeng) and captured more than 3,000 people including Song Huizong, Song Qinzong and his son, as well as a large number of the Zhao royal family, concubines, nobles, and court officials. They were escorted northward, and the public and private savings in Tokyo city were used for them. Empty.

The shame of Jingkang led to the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty and deeply hurt the hearts of the Han people. Yue Fei, the general of the Southern Song Dynasty, mentioned in “Man Jiang Hong”: “The shame of Jingkang has not yet been resolved, and the officials hate it. When will it be destroyed!”.

The Northern Song Dynasty fell from prosperity in just 100 years. The cause of the country’s subjugation has been shouldered by Wang Anshi alone for a long time. It was not until modern times that the evaluation of Wang Anshi changed.

9. Jianyan South Crossing

He kept getting beaten and kept running south.

10. Yue Fei’s Northern Expedition

In 1127, when Jingkang was humiliated, the Jin soldiers captured Kaifeng and the Northern Song Dynasty fell.

In the spring of 1134 (the fourth year of Shaoxing), Yue Fei wrote to the Song Dynasty to request the Northern Expedition to recover the lost territory. In May, the Yue family’s army crossed the river from Ezhou (now Wuhan, Hubei) and began the Northern Expedition. In the first battle, Yingzhou (today’s Zhongxiang, Hubei) was captured, and then the troops were divided into two groups. Yue Fei ordered Zhang Xian to attack Suizhou, while he led the main force to Xiangyang Prefecture (today’s Xiangyang, Hubei). In July, in order to prevent the Yue family’s army from continuing to move north, the Jin Dynasty sent reinforcements and tens of thousands of troops to join the defeated general Li Cheng. They lined up more than 30 camps in the northwest of Dengzhou in an attempt to block the Song army’s northward advance. The Yue family army fought bravely, defeated the Jin and puppet Qi coalition forces in one fell swoop, and took advantage of the victory to capture Dengzhou. Yue Fei immediately divided his troops to recover Tangzhou (now Tanghe, Henan) and Xinyang one after another. In August, Yue Fei was promoted to the military governor of Jingyuan Army by Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty.

In 1136 (the sixth year of Shaoxing), the Northern Expedition was launched again, occupying Yiyang and Luoyang. Later, due to fighting alone, he was forced to withdraw to Ezhou. Yue Fei’s ambition was not fulfilled during this Northern Expedition, so he wrote “Man Jiang Hong”. In 1140 (the tenth year of Shaoxing), Jin Wushu invaded the south. Yue Fei sent troops to defeat the Jin soldiers, regained Zhengzhou and Luoyang, and entered Zhuxian Town, which was only forty-five miles away from Feng. The morale of the Yue family army was high and they shouted “Go straight to Huanglong”. In the subsequent anti-Jin war, Yue Fei achieved greater victory, but Song Gaozong Zhao Gou and Prime Minister Qin Hui began to frame Yue Fei in order to completely realize the purpose of controlling the army and suppressing the main war faction. Reluctantly, Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty sought peace and summoned Yue Fei back to Beijing with the 12th degree gold medal. Before Yue Fei withdrew his troops, he sighed: “Ten years of work have been destroyed in one day! All the states and counties we have gained will be shut down in one day! It is difficult for the country to be revived! There is no way for the world to be restored!”.

In 1141 (the eleventh year of Shaoxing), Yue Fei’s Northern Expedition failed due to political reasons, and Yue Fei was also killed. Emperor Gaozong and Qin Hui actually poisoned Yue Fei to death in Fengbo Pavilion on unfounded charges such as “prompting the army to conquer Jiqi” and “criticizing Chengyu”. Yue Fei was only 39 years old when he died.

11. Kaiju Northern Expedition

The Northern Expedition to the Jin Dynasty was presided over by Prime Minister Han Yuzhou of the Ningzong Dynasty of the Southern Song Dynasty. During the reign of Emperor Ningzong of the Song Dynasty, Han Kanzhou gradually came to power and advocated resistance to the Jin Dynasty. He was supported by Xin Qiji, Lu You, Ye Shi and other famous anti-war factions. Ningzong of the Song Dynasty was dissatisfied with the humiliating status of the Southern Song Dynasty, and also supported Han Yuzhou’s anti-golden policy.

In the second year of Kaixi (1206), Han Yuzhou, who was in charge of Pingzhang’s military affairs, rashly launched the Northern Expedition without making sufficient preparations. Song armies attacked one after another. Guo Ni, the governor of Shandong Province, sent troops to attack Suzhou (now Suzhou, Anhui). Li Shuang, the commander of Jiankang Prefecture (now Nanjing, Jiangsu), led his troops to attack Shouzhou (now Fengtai, Anhui), and Jiangling Prefecture (now part of Hubei). Huangfu Bin, the deputy capital commander, attacked Tangzhou (today’s Tanghe, Henan Province), and Wang Dajie, the deputy capital commander of Jiangzhou (today’s Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province), attacked Caizhou (today’s Runan, Henan Province). However, the Jin army was well prepared, so all the above-mentioned Song army attacks ended in failure. Only after the deputy capital of Zhenjiang was under control, they won consecutive battles, but they could not change the defeat. The Jin army took advantage of the victory and headed south. Wu Xi, the deputy envoy of Xuanfu in Sichuan, rebelled against the Song Dynasty and surrendered to the Jin Dynasty. He ceded the four counties outside the pass and the Jin Dynasty made Wu Xi the King of Shu. Faced with this unfavorable situation, Han Zhouzhou had no choice but to seek peace from the Jin Dynasty, but failed because the Jin people proposed to kill Han Zhouzhou and others. In the third year of Kaixi (1207), Wu Xi’s rebellion was put down, and the situation in Huainan gradually stabilized. General Kui of the Jin Dynasty died of illness in the army, and the situation was favorable to the Song Dynasty. However, the peace faction in the Song court began to conspire. Shi Miyuan, the Minister of Rites, colluded with Queen Yang, Yang Cishan and others to kill Han Yuzhou, and the Song and Jin Dynasties stopped their troops to negotiate peace. In the first year of Jiading (1208), the Song and Jin Dynasties concluded the Jiading Peace Agreement.

12. Duanping enters Luo

Duanping entered Luo, which occurred in the first year of Duanping (1234). After the Southern Song Dynasty united with Mongolia to destroy the Jin Kingdom, it sent troops to recover the former Northern Song Dynasty Tokyo Kaifeng Prefecture (today’s Kaifeng, Henan) and Xijing Henan Prefecture (today’s Luoyang, Henan) in Henan. and a military operation in the three capitals of Nanjing Yingtianfu (now Shangqiu, Henan). Due to lack of food and grass and lack of cavalry, they were eventually defeated by the Mongolian army and returned to their original defense line. This action became the trigger for the full-scale war between Mongolia and Song Dynasty.

13. The Mongolian-Song War

In the second year of Duanping (1235), the Mongolian army invaded south for the first time and was repulsed. Unwilling to accept defeat, the Mongolian army invaded the south twice in September of the following year and in the third year, with its front almost approaching the north bank of the Yangtze River. Because the Song army fought bravely and defeated the Mongolian army, it once again thwarted the Mongolian army’s attempt to cross the Yangtze River and move south. Then, under the command of the anti-Mongolian generals Meng Gong, Meng Ying, Yu Jie and others, the soldiers and civilians of the Southern Song Dynasty defeated the Mongolian army many times, forcing them to try to take a detour. In the first year of Kaiqing (1259), the Mongolian Khan Meng Ge was injured by a stray arrow of the Song army during the campaign in Hezhou and died in the army. His brother Kublai Khan was fighting with the Song army in Ezhou. After hearing the news, he immediately prepared to withdraw his troops in order to seize the position of Great Khan. Jia Sidao took the opportunity to send people to negotiate peace with Kublai Khan to ensure peace. [80] In the seventh year of Xianchun (1271), Kublai Khan founded his country in Dadu and named it Yuan.

14. Battle of Yashan

In the spring of the first year of Deyou (1275), the Yuan army captured the important military towns of Anqing and Chizhou, threatening Jiankang, and the Yangtze River defense line collapsed. There was a great earthquake in the government and the public, and everyone from all walks of life hoped that Jia Sidao would go out to fight. As a result, the Song army was defeated. Jia Sidao was demoted and was killed by the prison officer Zheng Huchen on his way to his post. On November 20th of the same year, Changzhou fell. Soon Pingjiang also fell, and people in Lin’an were panicked. On the fifth day of February in the second year of Deyou (1276), a surrender ceremony was held in Lin’an City, and Song Gongzong was captured. The Southern Song Dynasty perished. The Song Dynasty and the vast number of patriotic soldiers and civilians never surrendered and resisted desperately.

Zhao Xian’s younger brothers Zhao Shi and Zhao Bing were protected by ministers and escaped from Lin’an. Zhao came to the throne in Fuzhou and became Duanzong of the Song Dynasty, which was changed to Jingyan of the Yuan Dynasty (1276). Wen Tianxiang organized soldiers and civilians on land to resist the invasion of the Yuan army, while courtiers Chen Yizhong, Zhang Shijie, Lu Xiufu and others escorted Zhao Shi and Zhao Bing to escape south by boat, and wandered on the sea with the Song Dynasty to form a court. In the spring of the third year of Jingyan’s reign (1278), the small court arrived in Leizhou. On April 15th, Zhao Shi, who was only eleven years old, passed away. Lu Xiufu and other ministers supported Zhao Bing as emperor and changed Yuan Xiangxing.

Under the fierce attack of the Yuan army, Leizhou fell. The small court moved to Yashan (Xinhui, Guangdong). The Yuan army, led by the Han general Zhang Hongfan, followed closely behind and launched a general attack on Yashan. The Song army was defeated across the board. Zhao Bing, along with Lu Xiufu and more than 800 people from the Zhao and Song royal family, collectively jumped into the sea and committed suicide. Zhang Shijie led the rest of the navy to break out and went to the foot of Hailing Mountain. They heard the sad news that Lu Xiufu had died for his country together with Emperor Bing on his back. Zhang Shijie was so grief-stricken that he fell into the sea. Patriotic soldiers and civilians threw themselves into the sea one after another. At this point, the Song Dynasty was declared completely destroyed.